Leukemia is a type of blood and bone marrow. Cancer is a term used to define the abnormal growth of cells. In this, the cells grow uncontrollably in any part of the body which become a problem as it spreads to other parts of the body. In the case of leukemia, the cells grow out of control in an abnormal manner in the bone marrow. The production of blood takes place in the bone marrow and if cancer develops in the bone marrow it automatically affects the blood. Bone marrow is basically a soft and spongy tissue that is present in the bones. Bone marrow is responsible for the production of several cells such as red blood cells that are responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients, white blood cell that helps in fighting infections and platelet that helps in blood clotting. Bone marrow continuously produces these cells in order to maintain proper body function. Diagnosis of leukemia is easier than other cancer as it can be identified in X-rays. There are several variants of leukemia some are common in adults and some are in children.
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Enlarged spleen or liver
- Sudden weight loss
- Pale skin
- Excruciating pain in the bones
- Shortness of breath
- Night sweats
- Nose bleeding
How is leukemia caused?
Generally, DNA assists or gives directions to the cell for its function. Cells have a particular cell cycle according to which their structure, function, production, and duration of life is fixed. All the cells follow the same cycle and if there is any disruption in that cycle then it causes problems. In the case of leukemia, mutations in the genetic material or DNA cause changes due to which the cell cycle gets disrupted and they continue to grow rapidly and go out of control. Later on, these abnormal cells increase in number and make a cluster and the number of healthy red blood cells and white blood cells decreases.
Risk factors involved:
- Genetic disorder
- Family history
- Blood disorders
- Exposure to radiations
- Exposure to chemotherapy and chemicals such as benzene
- Excessive smoking, drinking, and drug addiction
Physical examination: First the doctor asks about the symptoms of the person who is experiencing it. Symptoms such as swelling in lymph nodes, pain in the body, bleeding, bruises, skin rashes, or signs of enlarged liver show signs of leukemia. After the physical examination and the symptom, the doctor recommends an appropriate diagnostic test. Oncology Treatment in Udaipur depends upon the diagnosis and requirement of the patient.
Complete blood count (CBC): This is the blood test that gives a detailed description of the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. If a person is suffering from leukemia then that person has a lesser amount of red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
Blood cell examination: There are other blood samples that are checked to check for leukemia. In this, the type and shape of the cells are examined in order to identify if there is any chromosomal abnormality or any other problem.
Imaging test: There are several imaging tests such as X-ray, CT Scan, Magnetic resonance Imaging Scan or MRI all these helps in the diagnosis of leukemia. This test helps the doctor to identify the severity of the condition of the patient as it helps to see the spread of cancer.
Bone marrow biopsy: In this test, the doctor gets a sample from the bone marrow with the help of a needle and then sends it to the laboratory for examination. Then under the microscope, the cells are examined for abnormality which confirms the diagnosis of leukemia.
Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments which is used for the treatment of leukemia. In this, chemicals or medications are used in combination to kill the leukemia cells and stop them from dividing and regain the normal cell cycle by the other healthy cells. The best oncologist in Udaipur uses chemotherapy in case of leukemia when the medicines don’t work.
Radiation therapy: In this, the doctor uses strong beams of radiations to kill the cancerous cells and stop their growth. Radiation is directed to the specific location where cancer cells are accumulated.
Target therapy: This uses a specific type of drug that focuses on leukemia cells. It works by blocking the ability of leukemia cells to multiply and divide by cutting the blood supply of the cell which they used for growing.
Bhagwan Mahaveer cancer hospital and research center have one of the best oncology doctors in Jaipur. We have a team of specialized Oncologists and experts that are always available in case of any emergency or query.