Potential causes and risk factors of colon cancer

Colon cancer treatment
Colon is a part of the large intestine and its major function of colon is to remove water, nutrients and electrolyte from the partially digested food that enters the large intestine. This undigested food then gets stored in the rectum that is excreted out of the body and colon is the final part of the digestive tract. Colon cancer generally affects the adults but it can happen at any stage of life. It usually begins as a small non cancerous benign lump of cells which are also known as polyps that are formed inside the lining of the colon. Colon cancer begins when the polyps start to divide uncontrollably without stopping. Generally, when there is a mutation in the DNA of the cells, they do not follow the cell cycle and harm the surrounding cells as well. This kind of condition becomes critical and requires immediate medical attention. There are certain symptoms that a body shows in order to tell that there is something wrong with it. It is necessary that one notices those warning signs shown by the body as early detection of any disease helps in providing better treatment options. There are a lot of colon related disorders that can affect the large intestine or colon that includes:
  • Chronic diarrhea
  • Colon (colorectal) cancer
  • Crohn’s disease (Inflammatory bowel disease)
  • Intestinal ischemia
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Polyps
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Colonic dysmotility
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Intestinal obstructions
Symptoms: There are several types of signs that the body shows in order to show that something is wrong with it. The early stages of colon cancer doesn’t show any symptoms but as the spread increases there are certain warning signs that the body shows, some of the warning signs and symptoms might include:
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Rectal bleeding or blood in the stool
  • Persistent abdominal pain or discomfort
  • Excruciating pain in the stomach
  • Change of Bowel habits, constipation or diarrhea or sudden change in consistency
  • Constipation or diarrhea or sudden change in consistency of the stool
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Change in color of the stool
  • Excessive formation of gas
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Constipation
  • Iron deficiency
  • Anemia
Causes: Generally, one cannot pick any specific reason or major cause of colon cancer but according to the colon cancer doctors in Jaipur, the colon cancer begins or develops when there is a mutation in the DNA cells which means entire function of the cell gets stopped due to the mutation in the DNA due to which the cells are not able to function normally. Further, the change in DNA or damage in the DNA cells make it cancerous and due to which it continues to divide rapidly without stopping. It then grows and destroys the nearby cells and tissues. Sometimes it spreads to the other organs as wealth which is known as metastasis.  Colon cancer treatment in Udaipur is quite popular as the hospitals have all the required facilities. Risk factors involved: According to the best oncology specialist in Jaipur there are several risk factors associated with colon cancer some of them might include: Old people that are above 50 years of age are at greater risk of having colon cancer, rather than people who are young.  Though there is no underlying reason behind it but according to the stats older people are likely to have greater chances. People with Genetic history or family history of colon or rectal cancer are likely at a greater risk of having colon cancer in future. Inflammatory intestine:  There are several conditions such as chronic inflammatory disease, ulcers that increase the chances of colon cancer. People that have low fiber and have a fat rich diet are likely to have digestive problems that might result in colon cancer in the future. Sedentary Lifestyle of a person makes them susceptible to many diseases including colon cancer. Therefore, in order to live a healthy life regular exercise and proper diet is necessary. People suffering with diabetes are also at a greater risk of having colon cancer since their ability to recover from the polyps decreases due to their health condition. Smoking and alcohol is injurious to health and are reasons for various diseases and cancers across the world and colon cancer is also among it.

Causes of colon cancer and the risk factors associated with it

colon cancer

Colon cancer occurs when the cell present in the colon grows uncontrollably. When the cell cycle gets disturbed and grows without knowing when to stop.  Colon cancer can occur at any age but usually, older people are mostly affected by it. Usually, small polyps which are clumps of noncancerous or benign cells are formed inside the colon. When left untreated it can become cancerous. Usually, when the polyps are formed it causes pain in the abdomen region. Identification of polyps, in time, helps in preventing colon cancer. Early diagnosis helps in giving the best colon cancer treatment in Udaipur. In some cases, colon cancer is also known as colorectal cancer as cancer occurs in the rectum area and spreads to the colon through it.


There are several signs and symptoms that can be identified. Most of the signs don’t appear in the early stages and it mostly appears in the advanced stages of colon cancer. Some of the symptoms that usually occur are:

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Excruciating pain in the abdomen
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Rectal bleeding while stool
  • Loss of appetite


There is no specific reason that a doctor can point out as the root cause of having colon cancer. Usually, cancerous cells cause a change in DNA or mutation in healthy cells. A healthy cell has a particular cell cycle that instructs the cell to follow the cell cycle that includes the growth of the cell and cell division of the cell. When the cell loses to have control over its cell division then the cells get cancerous.  Such cell alters the DNA of the neighboring cells as well that making a mass of cell which is also called a tumor. When these tumors further grow it turns into cancer as it spreads to different parts of the organs which is also known as metastasis.

Risk factors:

  • Smoking
  • Excessive consumption of alcohol
  • Older age
  • Low fiber and high-fat rich diet
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Family history of having colon cancer
  • Prior history of polyps
  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Excessive exposure to radiation


The treatment for colon cancer really depends upon the severity and the condition of the patient. The treatment also depends upon the location of cancer along with its stage. There are several methods of treatment for colon cancer and some of them are:

Surgery: Surgical removal of the polyps helps in prevention of the colon cancer.  With the help of colonoscopy, one can identify and diagnose colon cancer. In some cases where the cancer is spread to the colon, the part of the colon is removed along with the surrounding tissues to ignore any chances of having colon cancer again.

Endoscopic mucosal resection: The removal of large polyps during the colonoscopy while using the special tools is known as Endoscopic mucosal resection.

Colectomy: It is a surgical procedure that can be done laparoscopically as well, in the part of the colon is removed with healthy tissues along the side of cancer. Such a procedure minimizes the chances of having colon cancer again in life.

Targeted immunotherapy and chemotherapy: In this special drugs are used that focuses on the targeted cancerous cells in order to kill them. These drugs are used in combinations of chemicals (chemotherapy) and both procedures together helps in killing the cancerous cells.

Radiation therapy: It is a common procedure used among cancer patients. In cases where drugs do not work, radiation therapy is the only method left. In this procedure, high-frequency X-rays and protons are used to kill the cancerous cells. It also shrinks the size of the tumor or cancer so that it can be easily removed.