How does smoking affect our lung function

smoking affect our lung function

Smoking is injurious to health. We all have heard it so many times but does that restrain us from doing that ‘no’.  Smoking causes irritation in the lungs, having one or two cigarettes a day is also capable enough to cause coughing and irritation in the nasal area and chest. Knowingly what harm does smoking possess to our body people still smoke every day and some of them are so addicted to smoking that they smoke half a dozen cigarettes in a day without any hesitation.  Smoking destroys the lungs at the tissue level that decreases the lung space which in turn results in transporting less oxygen to the body.  the inhalation process of the human body is quite simple, as it begins when as a person inhales the air that reaches the nasal cavity which is followed by the pharynx the larynx, and from the windpipe, it reaches bronchi which is gain passes on to the bronchioles and the air finally reaches the air sacs where the actual exchange of gases takes place.

The alveoli sac in the body is the smallest sac where the actual exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place. The air we inhale it passes through the above-mentioned passage and enters the alveoli sac, now to understand the transportation of oxygen to the body we have to take the heart into consideration as well. As both heart and lungs work together in complete synchronization, in order to provide oxygenated blood to the entire body maintaining its function. In the human heart, the blood enters the heart twice because of which is called double circulation as well. Firstly, the carbon dioxide-rich blood from the entire body reaches the heart through veins from there it reaches the lungs through pulmonary arteries where the actual exchange of gases takes place. In the alveoli sac, the carbon dioxide is absorbed and the oxygen is released in the blood which is sent o the pulmonary veins from where it reaches the heart again, hence, called double circulation. From the heart through the aorta and other capillaries the oxygenated blood reaches the entire body.

The above process of purification of blood was explained to how interconnected lungs and heart are and how smoking can affect the overall functioning of the body. People who smoke their lungs are damaged as the alveoli sacs are damaged slowly and slowly, so, there is less part of the lungs that helps in the exchange of gases and consequently, it causes various lung diseases and heart diseases.  The harmful chemicals, smoke, and toxins from the cigarette create tar that accumulates in the lungs that block the passage for air exchange and enters the blood and can cause any type of damage depending upon person to person.

Risk factors associated with smoking include:

Cigarettes or smoking damages the entire circulatory system by deposing tar and mixing harmful toxic substances in the bloodstream. The Lung cancer doctors in Jaipur also suggest that this in turn might give rise to various harmful disease conditions thigh might include:

  • Increased risk of having lung cancer
  • Increased risk of the blood clot as the blood becomes thicker increase heart rate as the heart has to work harder
  • High blood pressure
  • Thinning of arteries
  • Affects the brain and have a more than a 50% chance of having a stroke
  • Lung infections
  • Flu pneumonia
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Risk of heart attack
  • Risk of heart failure
  • Asthma
  • Risk of other cancer
  • Erectile dysfunction
  • Weakened immune system
  • Gum disease
  • Problems in vision
  • Wheezing
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Acid reflux
  • Chronic coughing

Bhagwan Mahaveer cancer hospital and research center have is among the best cancer treatment hospital in Jaipur. We have some of the best oncologists and some Liver cancer specialists in Jaipur who are specialized in their respective fields.  For any query related to lung cancer contact Bhagwan Mahaveer cancer hospital and research center for expert assistance.

Liver cancer in children and its treatment

Liver cancer

Liver is the largest organ inside the human body. It is responsible for several important functions such as the production of bile juices for digestion of fats, removal of toxic chemicals and drugs from the blood, helping in blood clothing, and much more. Liver problems in children are very common,  some of them have liver failure (acute liver failure or chronic liver failure) which is harmful to their health. Liver cancer is not as common in children as it is in adults. Hepatoblastoma is one form of liver cancer that commonly occurs in children. Hepatoblastoma affects children of age 2-3 years of age and it affects 3-4 children among a million. Children suffering from it experience excruciating stomach pain and discomfort.  Children born prematurely are at greater risk of having Hepatoblastoma and they are born with a large number of tumors. As the child grows the tumors also grow in size and immediate removal of the tumors becomes necessary. In worst cases where the tumor can’t be removed, a liver transplant remains the only option.


  • Fever
  • Weakness
  • Excruciating stomach pain
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Yellowish skin
  • Sudden weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting


The doctors initially perform a physical examination and look for certain symptoms based on which he recommends certain blood tests and diagnostic procedures. Some of the diagnostic tests include:

Complete blood count or CBC: It is a procedure in which the sample of blood is taken in order to see the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It also shows the amount of hemoglobin present in the blood

Liver function test: In this, the blood sample is checked to measure the number of certain substances released by the liver into the blood, and if higher than a normal amount of that substance is present, it shows signs of liver cancer.

Ultrasound: In ultrasound, sound waves are used in order to see the internal condition and the level of infection that helps in the proper diagnosis of the disease.

MRI: MRI is a procedure in which magnetic waves are used in order to create a detailed picture of the area required it gives a clearer image of the damage of the organ

Biopsy: Biopsy is another diagnostic test in which a part of the tissue is removed from the infected area and viewed under a microscope to see any signs of cancer cells and get confirmed.


To choose the appropriate treatment option the doctor has to consider a lot of factors such as size, location, and spread of the tumor. The chances of recovery and efficacy of the treatment really depend on all these factors. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are general cancer treatment options. The cancer doctors in Jaipur try to remove it is possible without causing much harm to the child.

Surgical removal of the tumor or cancer includes several methods some of them are

Cryosurgery: Cryosurgery is a treatment in which the doctor uses an instrument to freeze the tumor and then destroy the tissues.

Total hepatectomy and liver transplant: It is done when the condition of the patient is severe and no other option is left.  In this, the entire liver is removed and a new liver is transplanted that meets all the conditions of the transplant.

Partial Hepatectomy: In this, a part of the liver is removed which is mostly affected by the tumor or cancer along with the surrounding tissues.

Bhagwan Mahaveer cancer hospital and research center have one of the best cancer hospitals in Jaipur famous for its liver cancer treatment. We have a team of the best Liver cancer specialists in Jaipur who are always available in case of any emergency or query.  For any cancer-related query contact us for expert assistance.

Things to know about Liver Cancer- Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is more common than one can imagine. There are various reasons for having liver cancer. Cancer is basically a condition in which the cells grow rapidly without any control. They can grow anywhere in the body. In the case of liver cancer, the cells become cancerous in the liver and grow rapidly. The problem occurs when the cancerous cell makes the surrounding normal cells also cancerous. When this happens cancer spreads in the organ at a faster rate and it can spread to other organs of the body as well.  In such conditions, it becomes life-threatening therefore, it is important to visit a doctor when there are any signs and symptoms.

Types of liver cancer

Cancer that begins in the liver is called Primary Liver cancer. There are several forms of cancer some of them include:

  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)
  • Hepatoblastoma
  • Benign liver tumor
  • Hemangioma
  • Hepatic adenoma
  • Angiosarcoma


  • Abdominal swelling
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Fever
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Yellowish color eyes
  • Blood in vomiting
  • Dark-colored urine
  • Indigestion


There are certain tests and diagnostics that help in the proper diagnosis of liver cancer. The doctors generally ask for the medical history of the patient and family history if any. Some of the diagnostic tests include:

Blood tests and liver function tests help to determine the protein level and functioning of enzymes.  The presence of alpha-fetoproteins confirms signs of liver cancer.

Abdominal Ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI Scan give clearer and detailed images of the liver that helps to understand the doctor about the intensity of the damage.

Angiogram is another test in which a dye is injected into the artery to see the liver and signs of any tumor or cancerous cells.

Laparoscopy is also used to diagnose the condition of the liver from inside. In this, the doctor uses a laparoscope that has a small camera attached to its one end that captures the live condition of the organ.

A liver biopsy is another diagnostic test done to find out the condition of the liver. In this, tissues are removed from the liver which is then studied in a laboratory to find out if the tumor is benign or malignant. Liver cancer specialist in Jaipur performs all the necessary tests required to know the accurate condition of the liver so as to provide the best treatment option possible. The treatment usually depends upon the condition of the patient.


Prognosis or chances of recovery depends upon the condition of the patient and the type of treatment method used by the doctor. There are several methods to treat liver cancer, some of them include

Chemotherapy:  Chemotherapy is an advanced procedure that is used on patients with cancer patients with no other option left. In this, the patient is injected with chemicals or drugs intravenously. Though chemotherapy helps a lot of patients, it has some side effects as well such as vomiting, hair loss, loss of appetite, chills, weakness, etc

Radiation Therapy: It uses high-energy beams of energy that are directed to the cancerous region. It kills the cancerous cell with its radiation. The radiation destroys the blood cells that stop the nutrition and oxygen that is supplied which ultimately kills the cancerous cells.

Ablation therapy: In this procedure, the tumor is destroyed inside the body by using techniques such as cryoablation, microwave ablation ethanol ablation, etc.

Partial Hepatectomy: In this, a part of the liver is removed that has cancerous cells. The surrounding tissues are also removed to reduce the possibility of liver cancer in the future.

Liver transplant: A liver transplant is a quite rare option that is used in severe cases where no other option is left. The chances of having cancer become negligible as the entire liver is transplanted. This procedure is costly and takes a lot of time to get the appropriate donor. Further, it is very important for the body to accept the new liver for proper functioning.

Bhagwan Mahaveer cancer hospital and research center is one of the best cancer hospital in Jaipur. We have a team of specialized Oncologists and experts that are always available in case of any emergency or query.